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Kazakhstan Facts Kazakhstan Flag Kazakhstan Map


Kazakhstan Map
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current time and date
currency: Tenge (KZT)
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Kazakhstan profile
landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050
Kazakhstan history
Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs thus far back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70 percent Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; managing Islamic revivalism; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness; developing a multiparty parliament and advancing political and social reform; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
Conventional short form: Kazakhstan
Local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Local short form: Qazaqstan
Formerly known as: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
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Kazakhstan's capital city is Astana
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Kazakhstan Constitution:
first post-independence constitution adopted 28 January 1993; new constitution adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995, amended May 2007 and February 2011
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Kazakhstan population growth rate: 1.235%
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Kazakhstan highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
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Kazakhstan lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
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About 9% of Kazakhstan's land is arable.
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Irtysh River is the Longest River in Kazakhstan
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Kazakhstan birth rate is 20 births/1,000 population
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Kazakhstan infant mortality rate is 23 deaths/1,000 live births
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Kazakhstan fertility rate is 2.38 children born/woman
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Kazakhstan climate:
continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
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Top 10 cities of Kazakhstan with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Almaty: 1,328,362
2. Astana: 775,800
3. Shymkent: 629,800
4. Karaganda: 459,778
5. Taraz: 398,233
6. Pavlodar: 354,809
7. Oskemen: 344,421
8. Semey: 312,136
9. Aktobe: 285,507
10. Oral: 255,489
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Kazakhstan ethnic groups:
Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.8%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.5%
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Kazakhstan Exports:
oil and oil products 59%, ferrous metals 19%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal
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Kazakhstan Imports:
machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
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bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 15 members are appointed by the president; 32 members elected by local assemblies; members serve six-year terms, but elections are staggered with half of the members up for re-election every three years) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 9 out of the 107 Mazhilis members elected by the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, a presidentially appointed advisory body designed to represent the country's ethnic minorities; non-appointed members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
14 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys)

1. Almaty Oblysy
2. Aqmola Oblysy (Astana)
3. Aqtobe Oblysy
4. Atyrau Oblysy
5. Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy [West Kazakhstan] (Oral)
6. Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau)
7. Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy [South Kazakhstan] (Shymkent)
8. Pavlodar Oblysy
9. Qaraghandy Oblysy
10. Qostanay Oblysy
11. Qyzylorda Oblysy
12. Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy [East Kazakhstan] (Oskemen)
13. Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy [North Kazakhstan] (Petropavlovsk)
14. Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz)

and 3 cities* (qalalar, singular - qala):

1. Almaty Qalasy 2. Astana Qalasy 3. Bayqongyr Qalasy [Baykonur]
Political parties and leaders:
Adilet (Justice) - Maksut NARIKBAYEV, Tolegen SYDYKHOV, Bakhytbek AKHMETZHAN, Yerkin ONGARBAYEV (formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan)

Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) - Azat PERUASHEV

Alga - Vladimir KOZLOV (unregistered and banned as extremist in November 2012)

Auyl (Village) - Gani KALIYEV

Azat (Freedom) Party - Bolat ABILOV (formerly True Ak Zhol Party)

Azat NSDP - co-chaired by Bolat ABILOV and Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY

Azat and NSDP united in 2009, but the authorities have refused to register Azat NSDP as a single party

Communist Party of Kazakhstan (KPK) - Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN (suspended by court decision)

Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan - Vladislav KOSAREV

National Social Democratic Party (NSDP) - Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY

Nur Otan (Fatherland's Ray of Light) - Nursultan NAZARBAYEV, Nurlan NIGMATULIN (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan)

Patriots' Party - Gani KASYMOV

Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) - Altynshash ZHAGANOVA



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